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Furnace Temperature


Furnace Temperature
Kind of Furnace Degrees C Degrees F
Boilers
By-Product Coke Ovens
Cement Kilns, hot Zone
Copper Converters
Copper Refining Furnaces
Copper Reverberatories
Gas Producer
Glass Annealing Furnaces
Glass Tanks, bottle
Glass Tanks, plate
Iron and Steel Furnaces
    Annealing Oven
    Blast Furnace, tapping
    Bessemer Converter
    Electric Furnaces
    Heating Furnaces
    Malleable Furnaces
    Open Hearths
Melting Chamber
Checkers
Soaking Pits
1000 to 1600
1000 to 1500
1300 to 1600
1200 to 1300
1250 to 1550
1300 to 1570
1260 to 1370
0430 to 0450
1370 to 1600
1370 to 1650

0760 to 0980
1370 to 1540
1540 to 1650
1450 to 1700
0980 to 1310
1300 to 1650

0650 to 1680
0200 to 1430
1150 to 1370
1800 to 2900
1830 to 2730
2400 to 2900
2200 to 2400
2300 to 2800
2400 to 2850
2300 to 2500
0800 to 1000
2500 to 2900
2500 to 3000

1400 to 1800
2500 to 2800
2800 to 3000
2650 to 3100
1800 to 2400
2400 to 3000

1200 to 3050
0400 to 2600
2100 to 2500

COLOUR SCALE FOR TEMPERATURES
Lowest visible red
Lowest visible red to dark red
Dark red to cheery red
Cheery red to bright cheery red
Bright cheery red to Orange
Orange to yellow
Yellow to light yellow
Light yellow to white
White to Dazzling white
475
475 to 650
650 to 750
750 to 815
815 to 900
900 to 1090
1090 to 1315
1315 to 1540
1540 to Over
885
885 to 1200
1200 to 1380
1380 to 1500
1500 to 1650
1650 to 2000
2000 to 2400
2400 to 2800
2800 to Over

TEMPERATURE END POINTS OF PYROMETRIC CONES

Definition- Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (P.C.E.) - Supposing the case of Refractories, the amount of standard cone whose tip touches the supporting spot concurrently with a cone of the substance gets examined when tested as per the industrial standard method of Fire clay Bricks IS: 1528 Part-I 1980 of ISI.
Note: These expressions- “fusion point”, “deformation point”, “softening point” and “melting point”, have generally been used for Pyrometric Cone Equivalent (P.C.E.).

LARGE CONES
P. C. E. CONES
Orton Cone
ºC
ºF
Orton Cone
ºC
ºF
022
021
020
019
585
602
625
668
1085
1116
1157
1234
11
12
13
14
1294
1306
1349
1398
2361
2383
2460
2548
018
017
016
015
696
727
767
790
1285
1341
1407
1454
15
16
17
18
1430
1491
1512
1522
2606
2716
2754
2772
014
013
012
011
834
869
866
886
1533
1596
1591
1627
19
20
23
26
1541
1564
1605
1621
2806
2847
2921
2950
010
09
08
07
887
915
945
973
1629
1679
1733
1783
27
29
31
31
1640
1659
1683
1699
2984
3018
3061
3090
06
05
04
03
991
1031
1050
1086
1816
1888
1922
1987
32
32
33
34
1717
1724
1743
1763
3123
3135
3169
3205
02
01
1
2
1101
1117
1136
1142
2014
2043
2077
2088
35
36
37
38
1785
1804
1820
1820
3245
3279
3308
3362
3
4
5
6
1152
1168
1177
1201
2106
2134
2151
2194
39
40
41
42
1865
1885
1970
2015
3389
3425
3525
3659
7
8
9
10
1215
1236
1260
1285
2219
2257
2300
2345
-
-
-

*Note: Pyrometric Cones do not provide precise temperature measurement. Where it is wished to construe P.C.E. values closed to the measured temperature. Above listed table can be referred because this table have been officially accepted by A.S.M.T., that is established on the works of fair child and peters, J. Amer. Cer. Soc. 9, 701-43, 1926. Correction in A.S.M.T. Cones from 12 to 37 (inclusive) were adopted in June, 1955, A.S.M.T. Standards 1955, 711.715 Heating rate: Cones 022 to 37 (inclusive), 150ºCent. per hour (270ºF per hour); Cones 38, 100º Cent. per hour (180ºF per hours).
The aforesaid temperature ranges do not refer to slower of heating in commercialized firing and utilization of refractory substances. Above stated table/chart have been acquired by the Bureau Of Indian Standards.

Cooperative Chart showing Cones Nos. and Temperature for segar & Orton Cones
Cone No.
Segar(º)
Orton (º)
Cone No. (º)
Segar (º)
Orton (º)
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
23
26
27
27½
28
29
30
1395
1410
1440
1470
1500
1520
1540
1560
-
1580
1600
1620
1640
1660
1680
1349
1398
1430
1491
1512
1522
1541
1564
1605
1621
1640
-
1646
1659
1665
31
31º½
32
32½
33
33½
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
1700
-
1710
1720
1730
1740
1760
1780
1800
1830
1860
1880
1900
1940
1980
1683
1699
1717
1724
1743
-
1763
1785
1804
1820
1835
1865
1885
1970
2015
Conversion Table Cold Crushing Strength
Kg/cm2
KB/IN2
Kg/cm2
KB/IN2
100
1,422
-
-
200
2,844
600
8,532
300
4,266
700
9,954
400
5,688
800
11,376
500
7,110
900
12,798
Calorie
1,000 K.Cal
1,000 BTU
1,500
5,952
1,000
3,968
Thermal Conductivity
K. Cal /m/hr/ºC
B.T.U./in/hr./ºF
-
4,032
0.5
8,064
1
24,194
3
-
Density
g/cm3
ib/ft3
ib/in3
g/cm3
ib/ft3
ib/in3
1.9
119
0.06865
-
-
-
2.1
131
0.07587
2.9
181
0.10478
2.5
144
0.0831
3.1
194
0.11200
2.5
156
0.09033
3.3
206
0.11923
2.7
169
0.09755
3.5
219
0.12646
NUMBER OF BRICKS REQUIRED PER UNIT VOLUME  
A CUBIC METRE
Of Brickwork requires

A CUBIC FOOT
of Brickwork requires

THE Volume of 1000 Nos. Standard
230 x 113 x 75mm Straights
closely stacked is approximately

The Volume of 1000 Nos. Standard
9”x 4”x 3” Straights
closely stacked is approximately
513 Number
230 x 113x75 mm Straights

14.2 Numbers
9” x 4” x 3” Straights



1.95 cubic meters



71 cubic feet
NUMBER OF BRICKS REQUIRED PER SQ. FOOT OF WALL
Thickness of
Wall
230 x 113 x 65 mm
(9” x 4” x 2”)
230 x 113 x 75 mm
(9” x 4” x 3”)
65 mm (2.5”)
75 mm (3”)
115 mm (4.5”)
230 mm (9”)
340 mm(13.5”)
460 mm (18”)
575 mm (22.5”)
690 mm (27”)
3.56
-
6.40
12.80
19.20
25.60
32.00
38.40
-
3.56
5.30
10.70
16.00
21.30
26.70
32.00




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